In baseball, a color line instituted in the s had informally barred blacks from playing in the major leaguesleading to the development of the Negro Leagueswhich featured many fine players.
In earlyTurner took a solar eclipse as a sign that the time for revolution was near, and on the night of August 21, he and a small band of followers murdered his owners, the Travis family, and set off toward the town of Jerusalemwhere they planned to capture an armory and gather more recruits.
The tide of national opinion finally began to turn during and immediately after World War II, making possible large-scale protests against Jim Crow such as the Montgomery bus boycott and the Civil Rights Movement of the s. This forced migration was unique in American history.
Families were attacked and forced off their land all across the South. In Oklahomafor instance, anyone qualified to vote beforeor related to someone qualified to vote before a kind of " grandfather clause "was exempted from the literacy requirement; but the only persons who had the franchise before that year were white, or European-American males.
A number of these cases involved women plaintiffs who tended to win public support. The economy of the industrial North depended on the slave-based agriculture of the South. Native American identity was especially targeted by a system that only wanted to recognize white or colored, and the government began to question the legitimacy of some tribes because they had intermarried with African Americans.
Observers such as Ian F.
White landowners and overseers often answered these aspirations with floggings, evictions, and lynchings.