Explanations for forgetting
Having presented information participants will rehearse it. There are a number of methodological problems confronting researchers trying to investigate the trace decay theory.
Causes of forgetting
There are two ways in which interference can cause forgetting: 1. There are two basic types of interference: Proactive interference is when an old memory makes it more difficult or impossible to remember a new memory. In this study they gave the participants drugs for hay fever which would put them in a certain drowsy state then asked to learn a list of words, they were then either asked to recall the list on the drug or not on the drug. They had found that performance in a emotional state that was not matching had significantly lower recall than when it was matching, showing that when cues are absent forgetting is worse. A retrieval cue is a hint or clue that can help retrieval. Baddeley states that the tasks given to subjects are too close to each other and, in real life; these kinds of events are more spaced out. Findings: More errors were made on day 2 in the AS and SA conditions rather than in the AA and SS conditions , however, this was not the case in the picture recognition task. Goodwin, D. Psychosocial Psychology Consider how often you find yourself forgetting something important.
Thanks for your feedback! They are also greater when people try to remember events having personal relevance. Try doing this experiment yourself by attempting to draw a penny from memory, and then compare your results to an actual penny.
Nature of forgetting in psychology
Strengths of the theory Research evidence: There is research to support this theory such as the study from Baddeley and Hitch Intuitively correct: Most people can think of times when interference in both directions have occurred. Weaknesses of the theory Limited scope: This theory only can explain lack of recall when information in a similar format prevents recall. State-dependent failure internal cues — Description, AO1 State dependent forgetting occurs when your mood or physiological state during recall is different from the mood you were in when you were learning. Other studies found similar state-dependent effects when participants were given drugs such as marijuana. Evidence indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval. Procedure: 18 divers from a diving club were asked to learn lists of 38 unrelated words of two or three syllables. We just assume that if a cue helps to remember something it must have been there at the time of learning, and if it doesn t it must not have been. They will be more likely to retrieve the information when they are in a similar state. A number of experiments have indicated the importance of context-based cues for retrieval. A typical study would use the following procedure: participants listen to a list of words read out a steady rate, usually two seconds per word; they are then asked to recall as many of words as possible. Brown, John Displacement theory provides a very simple explanation of forgetting.
It was found that forgetting was due more to the amount of games played interference rather than time between each game trace decay. This theory suggests short term memory can only hold information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed.
An experiment conducted by Tulving and Pearlstone asked participants to learn lists of words belonging to different categories, for example names of animals, clothing and sports.
The notion that there should be less forgetting when the mood state at learning and at retrieval is the same is generally known as mood-state-dependent memory.
RI is the opposite, this happens when a new memory interferences with a old one. Cues have been found to overcome interference by Tulving and Potska,which is a limitation to the theory as this could mean the role of interference might have been exaggerated.
In other words, later learning interferes with earlier learning - where new memories disrupt old memories. There is evidence that the consolidation process is impaired if there is damage to the hippocampus a region of the brain. In this situation, retrieval cues are absent and the likely result is cue-dependent forgetting.
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