Genetic testing and counseling in pregnancy essay

What Do Genetic Counselors Do? Who should have carrier testing for genetic conditions? At least two hypotheses can explain the declining numbers of newborns with trisomy Rarely, girls will have symptoms if they inherit the changed gene from their mothers, but usually they have no symptoms.

genetic testing pdf

Parents' requests to select a certain genetic trait may pose even greater challenges for reproductive endocrinologists and embryologists when parents' choices seem to be antithetical to the best interests of the future child.

For autosomal recessive genetic conditions to manifest, both copies alleles of a disease gene have to carry a deleterious mutation and carriers with only one mutant copy are unaffected. Protected genetic information must include information based on evaluation, testing, and family histories of individuals and their family members The pace at which new information about genetic diseases is being developed and disseminated is astounding.

Why do genetic testing

The counselor can help you understand the inheritance patterns of disorders and help assess your chances of having a child with those disorders. The early eugenics movement in the United States espoused improvement in the inborn characteristics of the human species by applying the rules of heredity to human reproduction President's Commission, ; Kevles, ; Duster, The counselor acts as a resource in dealing with the sadness, loss, anger, guilt, or anxiety that genetic information can bring Kessler et al. They determine whether you, your partner, or your baby carry genes for some inherited disorders. Other disorders might require several visits or, rarely, long-term supportive care may be needed. Some of these challenges are also discussed in Chapters 1 , 2 , and 8. These concerns will become especially relevant as more tests are offered that have lowered sensitivity or specificity, such as those for non-Mendelian multifactorial diseases. Caplan that mandating genetic counselors to more positively spin life with trisomy 21 Down syndrome may obscure the medical and scientific facts, misleading patients. I agree with him that if laws compel genetic counselors to talk more about the happy healthy xylophone-banging little children, and less about the toddlers who sport scars from heart surgeries or develop leukemia, patients might leave counseling sessions with skewed views of life with an extra chromosome

The provider—as well as the presentation—may have a profound effect on perception of risk Biesecker, a; Kessler, Prenatal diagnosis may provide reassurance as well as information for decisions on selective abortion if the fetus is determined to be at high risk for a diagnosable genetic disorder or in preparing for the birth of an affected child.

Genetic information from a project that once has an aim to map the human genome in hope for curing diseases are now being used in businesses. As Lippman-Hand and Fraser a point out, "the 'one' in the numerator never disappears no matter the size of the denominator, and the 'one' could be the counselee's child.

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Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing