Historical perspective of management
A significant part of Taylorism was time studies. These were a series of research studies conducted with the workers at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. Abraham Maslow Around this same time, Abraham Maslow created his hierarchy-of-needs theory, which showed that workers were motivated through a series of lower-level to higher-level needs.
Historical background of management
Max Weber was a German sociologist, political economist, and administrative scholar who contributed to the study of bureaucracy and administrative literature during the late s and early s. The paper linked historical conditions with theoretical arguments to explain why U. This interpretation has brought about a significant change or paradigm shift in the way management studies and approaches organizations. The Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne studies were an important start to the behavioral perspective of management. With the advancement of statistical methods used in scientific management, quality assurance and quality control began in the s and s. Four areas were covered in the interviews: production, customer satisfaction, supplier management, and new product development and design. They include cognitive challenges—the belief that there was inevitably a cost-quality tradeoff—social psychological Page 10 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"Historical Perspective. His writings guided managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties and on the practices in which they should engage. Even though scientific management was considered background in the s, it continues to make significant contributions to management theory today. Only recently, with tremendous changes facing organizations and how they operate, have educators and managers come to face this new way of looking at things. Secondly, the films also served the purpose of training workers about the best way to perform their work. Taylorism Scientific management, or Taylorism, is a management theory that analyzes work flows to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.
Outcomes would be, e. Sound familiar?
Weberian bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical organization, action taken on the basis of and recorded in written rules, and bureaucratic officials requiring expert training.
Henri Fayol Henri Fayol, another leader in classical management theory, also focused on the efficiency of workers, but he looked at it from a managerial perspective—i.
See the category Systems Thinking Chaos Theory As chaotic and random as world events seem today, they seem as chaotic in organizations, too.
Key Terms bureaucracy: A complex means of managing life in social institutions that includes rules and regulations, patterns, and procedures that are designed to simplify the functioning of complex organizations. Yet, decades of management training and practices in the workplace have not followed this theory.
The results of the analysis confirm many expected patterns in the implementation of TQM: for example, the emphasis in TQM on training and employee involvement is clearly reflected in approaches and programs described in the interviews.
Comparisons with Taylorism Fayol is often compared to Frederick Winslow Taylor, who developed scientific management. As they expend more energy, they seek more structure to maintain stability. Taylor was concerned with task time and improving worker efficiency, while Fayol was concerned with management and the human and behavioral factors in management.
Max Weber Classical Perspective of Management: The classical perspective of management focused on improving worker productivity.
Classical perspective of management
These were a series of research studies conducted with the workers at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. In Theory Y, managers are more laissez-faire and allow employees more freedom in their work. Important components of scientific management include analysis, synthesis, logic, rationality, empiricism, work ethic, efficiency, elimination of waste, and standardized best practices. Yet, decades of management training and practices in the workplace have not followed this theory. The problem was that an organization could, e. As Weber understood it, society was being driven by the passage of rational ideas into culture, which, in turn, transformed society into an increasingly bureaucratic entity. A significant part of Taylorism was time studies. Time studies: Created by Frederick Winslow Taylor, these break down each job into component parts and time each part to determine the most efficient method of working. Scientific management was best known from to , but in the s, competing management theories and methods emerged, rendering scientific management largely obsolete by the s. Of course, due to the advent of the behavior-management movement in the s, this bleak situation did not come to pass. He used the scientific method of measurement to create guidelines for the training and management of employees. His approach fit with U. Secondly, the films also served the purpose of training workers about the best way to perform their work.
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