The historiographical and scientific methods of reaching conclusions

Not easy to get meanings One of the defects of ethnography is the study of present day social institution does not give the exact meanings to some traditional practices.

history of science pdf

For instance, by the 13th century AD, the Sultans of the East African Coast had their own mint of coins for producing their coins for trade and other purposes. Such details are necessary since they constitute first-hand information as the events happened before their own eyes i.

For instance it is established that Tetteh Quarshie brought cocoa to Ghana from Fernando Po but another source have it that the Basel missionaries brought cocoa from Surinam before Tetteh Quarshie. In conclusion, we can deduce that both documentary and non-documentary evidence must be used to complement each other in the writing of African history.

evolution of science

Some court officials include the linguist okyeamecourt heralds esen and executioners abrafo in the Akan states. Personal Observation and Records Through personal observation by visiting places of historical importance like slave sites, castles, forts etc.

Generalizations A remarkable problem associated with ethnobotany is generalization. Promotion of Research Written sources of African history promote research work. This supports the claim of Guan oral tradition that they occupied the highlands of the Ga state prior to the arrival of the Ga.

Borrowing of words Linguistics again helps to throw light on the relationships that have existed between peoples e. Preservation for longer periods. This helps historians to know and determine the eating habits and occupations of the early inhabitants of the Saharan regions.

Reconnaissance involves the process of discovering sites and plotting them for digging.

History and development of science

This process helps to get rid of prejudices, biases to ensure truthfulness. Inevitably there has been the historians own individuality added to each piece of history he complies and as E. Main sources of Pre-History Archaeology has helped historians to write history of pre-historic times. This helps to produce unbiased history which is backed by evidence. It is only to excavations that we go to know the kind of building people built and the occupation they engaged in. By addressing the reliability of scientific method in providing certainties and truths it will help clarify how far the historian can be confident with his conclusions when adopting the 'rigour' of a scientist. Coincidence in word usage Some conclusions drawn by linguists based on words similarities may be sheer coincidence. Again, archaeology provides information about how societies adapted their ways of life to suit their natural environment or how they modified their environment to suit their way of life. Human blood varies in composition from one person to another in the sense that some genes present in some people in some people are absent in others. Similarly, records written in diaries are recorded on the spot as events occur or soon after. Such changes can tell the historian about the adoption of new ideas by people. Again, oral tradition tends to put so much emphasis on personalities and events like wars, whilst playing down on social and economic aspects of the past With this, information becomes very scanty to the disadvantage of scholarship and posterity.

Inevitably there has been the historians own individuality added to each piece of history he complies and as E.

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